**For the industrial sector, we combined emissions from direct combustion, industrial processes and product use, as well as volatile emissions described by the Department of Environment and Energy in its 2018 Australia Emissions Projections report. On 4 November 2019, the United States notified the depositary of its withdrawal from the Agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  Ahead of the Paris COP, parties presented national country contributions (NDIs) that define each country`s climate change plan, including a greenhouse gas emissions reduction target, and how countries intend to achieve this goal. Many INDCs also contained an “adaptation component” that describes how a country intends to cope with the effects of climate change. Some 165 parties filed INDCs. The climate change agreement was first reached in 1992, following global concerns about climate change, including the publication in 1990 of the first report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The convention establishes a framework to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to prevent “dangerous anthropogenic damage to the climate system.” The climate change agreement entered into force in 1994 and is now almost universal, with 197 parties having ratified the convention. The Parties to the Convention shall meet regularly, in particular at the Annual Conference of the Parties (COP), at which they take decisions to promote the effective implementation of the Convention and adopt other instruments. The Australian INDC said Australia “will implement a macroeconomic target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% below their 2005 level by 2030”.
The comparison of objectives between Member States is made more difficult by the use of different base and target years. For example, the report says Australia appears to have broken a commitment to move its 2020 target from a 5% reduction from 2000 levels to a 15% reduction if the world reaches a global contract that can limit emissions to less than 450 parts per million of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Paris Agreement can limit emissions to this level. . . .